FAIL (the browser should render some flash content, not this). landfilldesign.com - Research

Research


landfilldesign.com
is the only interactive site that integrates 15-years of research with state of practice design methods to ensure that the professional engineer is current and utilizing the best software design tools available.


If there are any important topics that you would like to read about and are not found below, please contact us and we will gladly research the issue for you. In addition if you have any related research that you would like to contribute we would be pleased to post it here for you. Submit your related research to webmaster@landfilldesign.com.

Limited offer on Geosynthetics International Journal - Special issue on Liquid Collection Systems

 


(Adobe Acrobat Reader is required to view the selected documents below and can downloaded for free from from Adobe Systems Incorporated)

go to: [ Landfill Drainage Related ] [ Geomembrane Related ] [ GCL Related ]

Landfill Drainage Related:

Selected Design Papers, and Reports

GRI GC-8 standard (2001), “Standard guide for determination of the allowable flow rate of a drainage geocomposite”

Giroud, J.P. , Zornberg, J.G., and Zhao, A. (2000), “Hydraulic Design of Geosynthetic and Granular Liquid Collection Layers”, Geosynthetic International, Special Issue on Liquid Collection Layers, Vol. 7, Nos. 4-6.

Giroud, J.P., and Zhao, A. (2000), "Design of Liquid Collection Layers with Radial Flow”, Geosynthetic International, Special Issue on Liquid Collection Layers, Vol. 7, Nos. 4-6.

Giroud, J.P., Zhao, A., and Boneparte, R. (2000), "The Myth of Hydraulic Transmissivity Equivalency Between Geosynthetic and Granular Liquid Collection Layers”, Geosynthetic International, Special Issue on Liquid Collection Layers, Vol. 7, Nos. 4-6.

Giroud, J.P., Zhao, A., and Richardson, G.N. (2000), “Effect of Thickness reduction on Geosynthetic Hydraulic Transmissivity”, Geosynthetic International, Special Issue on Liquid Collection Layers, Vol. 7, Nos. 4-6.

Richardson, G.N. and Zhao, A. (2000), “Gas Transmission in Geocomposite Systems”, Geotechnical Fabrics Report, March, pp. 20-23, 2000.

Zhao, A. and Richardson, G.N., (2000), “Geocomposite Drains for Side Slopes Stability in Landfill Covers”, Proceedings of International Conference on Filters and Drainage in Geotechnical and Environmental Engineering, A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Warsaw, Poland, 289-293.

Thiel, R.S. (1999), "Design of a Gas Pressure Relief Layer Below a Geomembrane Cover to Improve Slope Stability”, Proceedings Geosynthetics’99, Boston, IFAI, pp. 235-252.

Zhao, A. and Montanelli, F. (1999), “Effect of Soil Presence on Flow Capacity of Drainage Geocomposite under High Normal Loads”, Proc. of Geosynthetics’99, Boston, Vol. 2, pp. 799-812.

Koerner, G.R. and T.Y. Soong, (1998), “Scatter in Geosynthetics Performance Testing and Its Effect on Three Design Examples”, Proceedings of GRI-12th Annual Conference, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 139-152.

Koerner, R.M and T.Y. Soong, (1998), “Analysis and Design of Veneer Cover Soils”, Proceedings of 6th International Geosynthetic Conference, Atlanta, Vol. 1, pp. 1-23.

Richardson, G. N., Zhao, A. (1998), “Composite Drains for Side Slopes in Landfill Final Covers”, Geotechnical Fabrics Report, June/July, pp. 22-25, 1998.

Richardson, G. N., Zhao, A. (1998), “Issues on Geosynthetic Drainage Systems in Landfills”, Proc. of the 12th GRI Conf on Lessons Learnt from Geosynthetics Case Histories, Philadelphia, pp. 177-196.

Thiel, R.S. (1998), “Design Methodology for a Gas Pressure Relief Layer below a Geomembrane Landfill Cover to Improve Slope Stability”, Geosynthetic International, Vol. 5, No.6 pp. 589-617.

Zhao, A. and Richardson, G. N. (1998), “Lateral Drainage Systems over Landfill Barrier Systems flat Slopes”, Geotechnical Fabrics Report, August, pp. 21-23.

Zhao, A. and Richardson, G.N. (1998), “The Design of Geonets in Landfill Leak-Detection Systems”, Geotechnical Fabrics Report, September, pp. 20-23.

Soong, T.Y. and Koerner, R.M. (1997), “The Design of Drainage Systems over Geosynthetically Lined Slopes", Geosynthetics Research Institute, Report #19.

J. Bank and Zhao, A. (1997), “Installation of Tri-Planar Geonet at Sarasota Landfill Project”, Proceedings of the 11th GRI Conference “Field Installation of Geosynthetics”, pp. 251-263, Philadelphia.

Zhao, A. and J. Bank (1997), “Tri-Planar Geonet Replaces Double Geonet Systems at Sarasota Landfill Project”, Proceedings of the 6th International Landfill Symposium, pp. 343-354, Sardinia, Italy.

Schroeder, P.R., Dozier, T.S., Zappi, P.A., McEnroe, B.M., Sjostrom, J.W. and Peyton, R.L. (1994), “The Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) Model: Engineering Documentation for Version 3”, EPA/600/R-94/168b, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH.

Koerner, G.R., Koerner, R.M., and Martin, J.P., 1993, “Field Performance of Leachate Collection Systems and Design Implications”, Proceedings of 31st Annual SWANA Conference, San Jose, Calif., pp. 365-380.

McEnroe, Bruce M. (1993), “Maximum Saturated Depth over Landfill Liner”, Journal of Environmental Engineering, ASCE, Vol.119, No. 2, March/April, pp. 262-270.

Thiel, R.S., and Stewart, M.G., (1993), Geosynthetic Landfill Cover Design Methodology and Construction Experience in the Pacific Northwest”, Proceedings Geosynthetics’93, Vancouver, IFAI, pp. 1131-1144.

Giroud, J.P., Badu-Tweneboah, K., and Boneparte, R. (1992), Rate of Leakage Through a Composite Liner Due to Geomembrane Defects”, J. Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 1-28.

Luettich, S.M., Giroud, J.P. and Bachus, R.C. (1992), “Geotextile Filter Design Guide”, J. Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Vol. 11, Nos. 4-6, pp. 355-370.

Gross, B.A., Bonaparte, R., and J.P. Giroud, (1990), “Evaluation of Flows from Landfill Leakage Detection Layers”, Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Geotextiles, The Hague, Netherlands.

Hwu, B., Koerner, R. M. and Sprague, C. J. (1990), “Geotextile Intrusion into Geonets”, 4th Int. Conf. On Geotextiles, Geomembranes and Related Products, pp. 351-356.

Giroud, J.P., and Bonaparte, R. (1984), “Waterproofing and Drainage: Geomembrane and Synthetic Drainage Layers”, Plastics and Rubber Waterproofing in Civil Engineering, R.I.L.E.M., Symposium No. II, Liege, Belgium.


back to top


Geomembrane Related:

Selected Reports

Geosynthetics Research Institute, REPORT NO. 23 (1999), “A Survey of Solid Waste Landfill Liner and Cover Regulations: Part II - World Wide Status”.

Geosynthetics Research Institute, REPORT NO. 21 (1998), “A Survey of Solid Waste Landfill Liner and Cover Regulations: Part I - USA Status”

Geosynthetics Research Institute, REPORT NO. 22 (1998), “Analysis and Critique of Ten Large Solid Waste Landfill Failures”

Geosynthetics Research Institute, REPORT NO. 17 (1996), “Behavior of Waves in High Density Polyethylene Geomembranes”

Geosynthetics Research Institute, REPORT NO. 16 (1995), “Long Term Durability of HDPE Geomembranes Part I - Depletion of Antioxidants”

Geosynthetics Research Institute, REPORT NO. 13 (1994), “Design Methodology for Geomembrane Protection Materials”

Geosynthetics Research Institute, REPORT NO. 9 (1993), “Stress Cracking Behavior of HDPE Geomembranes and its Prevention”

Geosynthetics Research Institute, REPORT NO. 10 (1993), “Experimental Puncture Behavior of HDPE Geomembranes Without, Then With, Various Protection Materials”



Selected Technical Papers

Koerner, R. M. and Soong, T.-Y. (1999), "Assessment of Ten Landfill Failures Using 2-D and 3-D Stability Analysis Procedures," Terzaghi Lecture at Technical University, Vienna, February , 40 pgs.

Hsuan, Y. G. and Koerner, R. M. (1998), "Antioxidant Depletion Lifetime on HDPE Geomembranes," Jour. Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 124, No. 6, June, pp. 532-541.

Koerner, R. M. and Soong, T.-Y. (1998), "Analysis of Design Veneer Cover Soils," Proc. 6th Intl. Conf. on Geosynthetics, IFAI Publ., St. Paul, MN, pp. 1-23.

Soong, T.-Y. and Koerner, R. M. (1998), "Laboratory Study of HDPE Geomembranes Waves," Proc. 6ICG, Atlanta, IFAI, pp. 301-306.

Soong, T.-Y. and Koerner, R. M. (1998), "Modeling and Extrapolation of Creep Behavior of Geosynthetics," Proc. 6ICG, Atlanta, IFAI, pp. 707-710.

Soong, T.-Y. and Lord, A. E., Jr. (1998), "Slow Strain Rate Modulus Assessment via Stress Relaxation Experiments," Proc. 6ICG, Atlanta, IFAI, pp. 711-714.

Adams, M. A. (1997) “Installation of a White Surface High Density Polyethylene Geomembrane”, Proceedings of the GRI-11 Conference on Field Installation of Geosynthetics, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 163-169.

Giroud, J.P. (1997), "Equations for Calculating the Rate of Liquid Migration Through Composite Liners Due to Geomembrane Defects", Geosynthetics International, Vol. 4, No. 3-4, pp. 335-348.

Giroud, J.P., Gross, B.A., Bonaparte, R. and McKelvey, J.A. (1997), “Leachate Flow in Leakage Collection Layers Due to Defects in Geomembrane Liners” Geosynthetics International, vol. 4, Nos. 3-4, pp.215-292.

Giroud, J.P., Khire, M.V. and Soderman, K.L. (1997), "Liquid Migration Through Defects in a Geomembrane Overlain and Underlain by Permeable Media", Geosynthetics International, Vol. 4, No. 3-4, pp. 293-321.

Giroud, J.P., Khire, M.V., and McKelvey, J.A. (1997), "Rate of Leachate Migration Through a Defect in a Geomembrane Underlain by a Saturated Permeable Medium", Geosynthetics International, Vol. 4, No. 3-4, pp. 323-334.

Giroud, J.P., King, T.D., Sanglerat, T.R., Hadj-Hamou, T., and Khire, M.V. (1997), "Rate of Liquid Migration Through Defects in a Geomembrane Placed on a Semi-Permeable Medium", Geosynthetics International, Vol. 4, No. 3-4, pp. 349-372.

Giroud, J.P., Soderman, K.L. and Badu-Tweneboah, K. (1997), "Optimal Configuration of a Double Liner System Including a Geomembrane Liner and a Composite Liner", Geosynthetics International, Vol. 4, No. 3-4, pp. 373-389

Hsuan, Y. G. and Guan, Z. (1997), "Evaluation of Oxidation Behavior of Polyethylene Geomembranes Using Oxidative Induction Time Tests," Oxidative Behavior of Materials by Thermal Analytical Techniques, ASTM STP 1326, A. T. Riga and G. H. Patterson, Eds., ASTM, pp. 76-90.

Phaneuf, R.J. (1997), “A Regulatory Perspective on HDPE Waves in Environmental Containment Systems”, Proceedings of the GRI-11 Conference on Field Installation of Geosynthetics, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 172-178.

Eith, A.W. and Koerner, G.R. (1996), “Assessment of HDPE Geomembrane Performance in a Municipal Waste Landfill Double Liner System After Eight Years of Service”, Proceedings of the GRI-10 Conference on Field Performance of Geosynthetics and Geosynthetic Related Systems, Philadelphia, PA, pages 97-109.

Koerner, G. R., Yazdani, R. and Mackey, R. E. (1996), "Long Term Temperature Monitoring of Landfill Geomembranes," Proc. SWANA Conference on Landfills, Nov. 4-6, Publ. GR DO401, Silver Springs, MD, pp. 61-73.

Koerner, R. M.,Wilson-Fahmy, R. F. and Narejo, D. (1996), "Puncture Protection of Geomembreans, Part III: Examples," Geosynthetics International, Vol. 3, No. 5, pp. 655-676.

Narejo, D., Koerner, R. M.and Wilson-Fahmy, R. F. (1996), "Puncture Protection of Geomembranes, Part II: Experimental," Geosynthetics International, Vol. 3, No. 5, pp. 629-653.

Wilson-Fahmy, R. F., Narejo, D. and Koerner, R. M. (1996), "Puncture Protection of Geomembranes, Part I: Theory," Geosynthetics International, Vol. 3, No. 5, pp. 605-628.

Comer, A. I., Sculli, M. L. and Hsuan, Y. (1995), "Effects of Freeze-Thaw Cycling on Geomembrane Sheets and Their Seams," Proc. Geosynthetics, IFAI, St. Paul, MN, pp. 853-866.

Giroud, J.P. (1995), "Evaluation of PVC Geomembrane Shrinkage Due to Plasticizer Loss", Geosynthetics International, Vol.2, No. 6, pp. 1099-1113.

Giroud, J.P., Badu-Tweneboah, K. and Soderman, K.L. (1995), "Theoretical Analysis of Geomembrane Puncture", Geosynthetics International, Vol.2, No. 6, pp. 1019-1048.

Giroud, J.P., Pelte, T. and Bathrust, R.J. (1995), "Uplift of Geomembranes by Wind", Geosynthetics International, Vol.2, No. 6, pp. 897-952.

Giroud, J.P. and Soderman, K.L. (1995), "Comparison of Geomembranes Subjected to Differential Settlement", Geosynthetics International, Vol.2, No. 6, pp. 953-969.

Giroud, J.P., Soderman, K.L.,Pelte, T. and Beech, J.F. (1995), "Design Method to Prevent Geomembrane Failure in Tank Corners", Geosynthetics International, Vol.2, No. 6, pp. 971-1018.

Giroud, J.P., Tisseau, B., Soderman, K.L. and Beech, J.F. (1995), "Analysis of Strain Concentration Next to Geomembrane Seams, Geosynthetics International, Vol.2, No. 6, pp. 1049-1097.

Hsuan, Y. G., Yim, G. and Koerner, R. M. (1995), "Evaluation of Geomembranes Made From Different Blends of Polyethylene," Proc. Geosynthetics, IFAI, St. Paul, MN, pp.509-523.

Koerner, G. R. and Koerner, R. M. (1995), "Temperature Behavior of Field Deployed HDPE Geomembranes," Proc. Geosynthetics, IFAI, St. Paul, MN, pp. 921-937.

Lord, A. E., Jr., Soong, T.-Y. and Koerner, R. M. (1995), "Relaxation Behavior of Thermally Induced Stress in HDPE Geomembranes," Geosynthetics Intl., Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 626-634.

Nataraj, M. S., Maganti R. S., and McManis K. L. (1995), “Interface Frictional Characteristics of Geosynthetics”, Proceedings on the 1995 Geosynthetics Conference, Nashville, TN, Volume 3, pages 1057-1069.

Yazdani, R., Campbell, J. L. and Koerner, G. R. (1995), "Long Term In-Situ Strain Measurements of an HDPE Geomembrane in a Municipal Solid Waste Landfill," Proc. Geosynthetics, IFAI, St. Paul, MN, pp. 893-905.

Hsuan, Y. G., Sculli, M. L. and Koerner, R. M. (1994), "Effects of Freeze/Thaw Cycling on Geomembranes and Their Seams: Part I - Strength Tests at +20deg.C," Proc. GRI-7 Conference on Geosynthetic Liner Systems, IFAI, St. Paul, MN, pp. 202-217.

Rollin, A.L., Lafleur, L., Mlynarek, J., and Marcotte, M. (1994), “Friction Angle of Textured HDPE Geomembranes”, Proceedings of the 1994 Fifth International Coference on Geotextiles, Geomembranes and Related Products, Singapore, Volume 1, pp. 441-444.

Soong, T.-Y., Lord, A. E., Jr. and Koerner, R. M. (1994), "Stress Relaxation Behavior of Geomembranes," Proc. 5th Intl. Conf. on Geosynthetics, Singapore, pp. 1121-1124.

Struve, Fred (1994), “Extrusion of Geomembranes”, Proceedings of the GRI-8 Conference on Geosynthetic Resins, Formulations and Manufacturing, Philadelphia, PA, pages 94-112.

Whitfield, B. L. and Koerner, G. R. (1994), "Experimental Investigation of "T" Seams in HDPE Geomembranes," Proc. GRI-7 Conference on Geosynthetic Liner Systems, IFAI, St. Paul, MN, pp. 109-115.

Cadwallader, M., Cranston, M. and Peggs, I.D. (1993), “White-Surfaced HDPE Geomembranes: Assessing Their Significance to Liner Design and Installation”, Geosynthetics ‘93 Conference Proceedings, Vancouver, British Columbia, Volume 2, pp. 1065-1079.

Hsuan, Y. G., Koerner, R. M. and Lord, A. E., Jr. (1993), "Stress Crack Resistance of High Density Polyethylene Geomembranes," Jour. Geotech. Engr. Div., ASCE, Vol. 119, No. 11, November, pp. 1840-1855.

Hsuan, Y. G., Koerner, R. M. and Soong, T.-Y. (1993), "Durability and Aging Study of Two Chlorosulfonated Scrim Reinforcement Geomembranes," Proc. Geosynthetics, Vancouver, IFAI, pp. 859-876.

Lord, A. E., Jr., Hsuan, Y. and Koerner, R. M. (1993), "Time-Temperature Superposition in Mechanical Durability Testing of Polyethylene Geomembranes," Geotechnical Testing Journal, GTJODJ, Vol. 16, No. 2, June, Technical Note, pp. 259-262.

Rivette, C.A., Spikula, D.R., and Nava, R.C. (1993), “Concerns and Experiences with Textured Geomembranes”, Proceedings of the GRI-7 Conference on Geosynthetic Liner Systems: Innovations, Concerns and Designs, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 126-137.

Tisinger, L.G., and Giroud, J.P. (1993), “ The Durability of HDPE Geomembranes”, Geotechnical Fabrics Report, September 1993.

Wilson-Fahmy, R. F. and Koerner, R. M. (1993), "FEM Analysis of Stability Cover Soils on Geomembrane Lined Slopes," Proc. Geosynthetics, Vancouver, IFAI, pp. 1425-1438.

Halse, Y., Lord, A. E., Jr. and Koerner, R. M. (1991), "Effects of Outdoor Exposure on a HDPE Geomembrane," Proc. Geosynthetics, IFAI, St. Paul, MN, 1991 pp. 287-302.

Koerner, R. M. and Hwu, B.-L. (1991), "Stability and Tension Considerations Regarding Cover Soils on Geomembrane Lined Slopes," Jour. Geotex. and Geomemb., Vol. 10, No. 4, pp. 335-355.

Lord, A. E., Jr. and Koerner, R. M. (1991), "Fundamental Approach to Service Life to Flexible Membrane Liners," Project Summary, Jour. Hazardous Materials, Vol. 26, pp. 365-369.

Lord, A. E., Jr., Koerner, R. M. and Wayne, M. H. (1991), "Residual Stress Measurements in Geomembrane Sheets and Seams," Proc. Geosynthetics, IFAI, St. Paul, MN, 1991,pp. 333-350.

Miller, L. V., Koerner, R. M., Dewyea, J. and Mackey, R. E. (1991), "Evaluation of a 30 mil PVC Liner and Leachate Collection System," Proc. 29th Annual GRCDA/SWANA Conf., Cincinnati, OH.

Halse, Y. H. and Rigo, J.-M. (1990), "Chemical Identification Methods Used to Characterize Geomembranes," Chapter 15 in Geomembranes: Identification and Performance Testing, RILEM TC-103.

Koerner, R. M., Halse, Y. H. and Lord, A. E., Jr. (1990), "Long-Term Durability and Aging of Geomembranes," Proc. ASCE Symp. on Waste Containment Systems," R. Bonaparte, Ed., Geotech. Spec. Publ. No. 26, ASCE, pp. 106-134.

Koerner, R. M., Halse, Y. H. and Lord, A. E. Jr. (1990), "Stress Cracking of Semi-Crystalline Geomembranes," Chapter 11 in Geomembranes: Identification and Performance Testing, RILEM TC-103.

Koerner, R. M. and Wayne, M. H. (1990), "Geomembrane Anchorage Behavior Using a Large Scale Pullout Apparatus," Chapter 9 in Geomembranes: Identification and Performance Testing, RILEM TC-103.

Koutsourais, M.M., Sprague, C.J., and Pucetas, R.C. (1990), “Interfacial Friction Study of Cap and Liner Components for Landfill Design”, Proceedings on the GRI-4 Conference on Landfill Closures: Geosynthetics, Interface Friction, and New Developments, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 149-169.

Swan, R.H. Jr., Giroud, J.P., Richer, P.J., and Spooner, P.R. (1990), “Geosynthetic Landfill Cap: Laboratory and Field Tests, Design, and Construction”, Geotextiles, Geomembranes and Related Products, pg. 493.

Halse, Y. H., Koerner, R. M., and Lord, A. E., Jr. (1989), "Laboratory Evaluation of Stress Cracking in HDPE Geomembrane Seams," Proc. GRI Seminar on Aging and Durability of Geosynthetics, Elsevier Publishing Co., London, England, pp. 177-194.

Lord, A. E. Jr., Koerner, R. M. and Swan, R. H. Jr. (1988), "Chemical Mass Transport Measurements to Determine Flexible Membrane Liner (FML) Lifetime," Geotech. Testing Journal, ASTM, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 83-91.

Wayne, M. H. and Koerner, R. M. (1988), "Effect of Wind Uplift on Liner Systems," Geotechnical Fabrics Report, IFAI, Vol. 6, No. 4, July/August, pp. 26-29.

Richardson, G. N. and Koerner, R. M. (1987), "Geosynthetic Design Considerations for Double Liner Systems," Proc. of 13th EPA Research Symposium, Cincinnati, OH, pp. 51-58.

Koerner, R. M., Martin, J. P. and Koerner, G. R. (1986), "Shear Strength Parameters Between Geomembranes and Cohesive Soils," Intl. Jour. Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 21-30.

Lord, A. E., Jr., Koerner, R. M. and Crawford, R. B. (1986), "NDT Techniques to Assess Geomembrane Seam Quality," Conf. Proc. Superfund '86, Dec. 1-3, Washington, DC, HMRCI, pp. 272-276.

Walker, M.D. and Juzkow, M.W. (1982), “The Twenty Year Weathering of Polyethylene Compounds Containing Carbon Black”, Proceedings of the Society of Plastics Engineers ANTEC Conference.


back to top


Geosynthetic Clay Liner Related

Selected Reports

Workshop on Geosynthetic Clay Liners (1997), EPA/600/R-96/149, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Workshop on Geosynthetic Clay Liners (1993), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, Ohio, EPA/600/R-93/171.

Compilation of Information on Alternative Barriers for Liner and Cover Systems (1991), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, Ohio, EPA/600/2-91/002.



Selected Technical Papers

Bonaparte, R., Carson, D. A., Daniel, D. E. and Koerner, R. M. (1999), "Lessons Learned from Slope Failures Involving Geosynthetic Clay Liners at Landfill Cover Test Plots," Geosynthetics: Lessons Learned from Failures, J. P. Giroud, K. L. Soderman and G. P. Raymon, Eds., (in press).

Daniel, D. E., Koerner, R. M., Bonaparte, R., Landreth, R. E., Carson, D. A. and Scranton, H. B. (1998), "Slope Stability of Geosynthetic Clay Test Plots," Jour. Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engr., Vol. 124, No. 7, pp. 628-637.

Koerner, R. M.(1998), "Manufacturing of Geosynthetic Clay Liners," Proc. GeoBento, February 2-3, 1998, BRGM Formation, Paris, France, pp. 31-42.

Koerner, R. M., Carson, D. A., Daniel, D. E. and Bonaparte, R. (1998), "Update of the Cincinnati GCL Test Plots," Proc. GeoBento, February 2-3, 1998, BRGM Formation, Paria, France, pp. 291-316.

Koerner, R. M., Soong, T.-Y. and Gontar, A. (1998), "Selected Aspects of GCL Shear Strength Testing," Proc. GeoBento, February 2-3, 1998, BRGM Formation, Paris, France, pp. 98-110.

Cowland, J.W. (1997), "A Design Perspective on Shear Strength Testing of Geosynthetic Clay Liners," Testing and Acceptance Criteria for Geosynthetic Clay Liners, ASTM STP 1308, L.W. Well (Ed.), American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 229-239.

Daniel, D.E., Bowders, J.J., and RB. Gilbert (1997), "Hydraulic Conductivity Testing of GCLs in Flexible Wall Permeameters," Testing and Acceptance Criteria for Geosynthetic Clay Liners, ASTM STP 1308, L.W. Well (Ed.), American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 208-226.

Daniel, D.E., Trautwein, S.J., and P.K. Goswami (1997), "Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity Properties of Geosynthetic Clay Liners Using a Flow Box," Testing and Acceptance Criteria for Geosynthetic Clay Liners, ASTM STP 1308, L.W. Well (Ed.), American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 196-207.

Didier, G., and L. Comeaga (1997), "Influence of Initial Hydration Conditions on GCL Leachate Permeability," Testing and Acceptance Criteria for Geosynthetic Clay Liners, ASTM STP 1308, L.W. Well (Ed.), American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 181-195.

Egloffstein, T. (1997), "Geosynthetic Clay Liners, Part Six: Ion Exchange," Geotechnical Fabrics Report, Vol. 15, No. 5, June/July, pp. 38-43.

Fox, P.J., deBattista, D.J., and S.-H. Chen (1997), "A Study of the CBR Bearing Capacity Test for Hydrated Geosynthetic Clay Liners," Testing and Acceptance Criteria for Geosynthetic Clay Liners, ASTM STP 1308, L.W. Well (Ed.), American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 251-264.

Fox, P.J., Rowland, M.G., Scheithe, J.R., Davis, K.L., Supple, M. and C.C. Crow (1997), "Design and Evaluation of a Large Direct Shear Machine for Geosynthetic Clay Liners," Geotechnical Testing Journal, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 279-288.

Garcin, P., Faure, Y.H., Feki, N., and G. Berroir (1997), "Shear Strength Resistance of GCLs," Geosynthetics ‘97 Conference Proceedings, Industrial Fabrics Association International, St. Paul, MN, pp. 899-912.

Gilbert, R.B., Scranton, H., and D.E. Daniel (1997), "Shear Strength Testing for Geosynthetic Clay Liners," Testing and Acceptance Criteria for Geosynthetic Clay Liners, ASTM STP 1308, L.W. Well (Ed.), American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 121-135.

Gleason, M.H., Daniel, D.E., and G.R. Eykholt (1997), "Calcium and Sodium Bentonite for Hydraulic Containment Applications," Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 123, No. 5, May 1997, pp. 438-445.

Hewitt, R.D., and D.E. Daniel (1997), "Hydraulic Conductivity of Geosynthetic Clay Liners after Freeze-Thaw, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 123, No. 4, April 1997, pp. 305-313.

Hewitt, R., Soydemir, C., Stulgis, R.P., and M.T. Coombs (1997), "Effect of Normal Stress During Hydration and Shear on the Shear Strength of GCL/Textured Geomembrane Interfaces," Testing and Acceptance Criteria for Geosynthetic Clay Liners, ASTM STP 1308, L.W. Well (Ed.), American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 55-70.

Koerner, G. R.and Bowders, J. L. and Scranton, H.(1997), "Instrumentation for Monitoring Field Performance of the Cincinnati GCL Test Plots," Proc. GRI-10 Conference on Field Performance of Geosynthetics, GII Publ., Springfield, PA, January, pp. 183-208 and Jour. of Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Vol. 15, No. 4-6, pp. 341-366.

Koerner, R.M. (1997), "Perspectives on Geosynthetic Clay Liners," Testing and Acceptance Criteria for Geosynthetic Clay Liners, ASTM STP 1308, L.W. Well (Ed.), American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 3-20.

Koerner, R. M., Carson, D. A., Daniel, D. E. and Bonaparte, R. (1997), "Current Status of the Cincinnati GCL Test Plots," Proc. GRI-10 Conference on Field Performance of Geosynthetics, GII Publ., Springfield, PA, January, pp. 153-182 and Jour. of Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Vol. 15, No. 4-6, pp. 313-340.

Kraus, J.F., Benson, C.H., Erickson, A.E., and E.J. Chamberlain (1997), "Freeze-Thaw Cycling and Hydraulic Conductivity of Bentonitic Barriers," Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol 123, No. 3, March 1997, American Society of Civil Engineers, New York.

LaGatta, M.D., Boardman, B.T., Cooley, B. H., and D.E. Daniel (1997), "Geosynthetic Clay Liners Subjected to Differential Settlement," Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 123, No. 5, May 1997, pp. 402-410.

McKelvey, J.A. (1997), "Geosynthetic Clay Liners in Alkaline Environments," Testing and Acceptance Criteria for Geosynthetic Clay Liners, ASTM STP 1308, L.W. Well (Ed.), American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 139-149.

Merrill, K., and A.J. O’Brien (1997), "Strength and Conformance Testing of a GCL Used in a Solid Waste Landfill Lining System," Testing and Acceptance Criteria for Geosynthetic Clay Liners, ASTM STP 1308, L.W. Well (Ed.), American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 71-88.

Pavlik, K.I. (1997), "Corps of Engineers GCL Interface Test Program," Geosynthetics ‘97 Conference Proceedings, Industrial Fabrics Association International, St. Paul, MN, pp. 877-884.

Petrov, R.J., Rowe, K.R., and R.M. Quigley (1997), "Comparison of Laboratory-Measured GCL Hydraulic Conductivity Based on Three Permeameter Types," Geotechnical Testing Journal, Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 49-62.

Quranta, J.D., Gabr, M.A., and J.J. Bowders (1997), "First-Exposure Performance of the Bentonite Component of a GCL in a Low-pH, Calcium-Enriched Environment," Testing and Acceptance Criteria for Geosynthetic Clay Liners, ASTM STP 1308, L.W. Well (Ed.), American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 162-177.

Richardson, G.N. (1997), "Design of GCL Barrier for Final Cover Side Slope Applications," Geosynthetics ‘97 Conference Proceedings, Industrial Fabrics Association International, St. Paul, MN, pp. 541-550.

Ruhl, J.L., and D.E. Daniel (1997), "Geosynthetic Clay Liners Permeated with Chemical Solutions and Leachates," Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 123, No. 4, April 1997, pp. 369-381.

Shafer, A., Purdy, S., and D. Tempelis (1997), "Value Engineering: An Alternative Liner System at the La Paz County Regional Landfill," Geosynthetics ‘97 Conference Proceedings, Industrial Fabrics Association International, St. Paul, MN, pp. 765-778.

Siebken, J. (1997), "A Comparison of Sample Preparation Methodology in the Evaluation of GCL Permeability," Testing and Acceptance Criteria for Geosynthetic Clay Liners, ASTM STP 1308, L.W. Well (Ed.), American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 45-52.

Siebken, J., Swan, R.H., and X. Yuan (1997), "Short-Term and Creep Shear Characteristics of a Needlepunched, Thermally Locked GCL," Testing and Acceptance Criteria for Geosynthetic Clay Liners, ASTM STP 1308, L.W. Well (Ed.), American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 89-102.

Snow, M., Kavazanjian, E., Jesionek, K., and J. Dunn (1997) "Installation of Geosynthetic Clay Liners at California MSW Landfills, Geosynthetics ‘97 Conference Proceedings, Industrial Fabrics Association International, St. Paul, MN, pp. 511-526.

Trauger, R.J., Swan, R.H., and Z. Yuan (1997), "Long Term Shear Strength Behavior of a Needlepunched Geosynthetic Clay Liner," Testing and Acceptance Criteria for Geosynthetic Clay Liners, ASTM STP 1308, L.W. Well (Ed.), American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 103-120.

von Maubeuge, K.P. (1997), "Manufacturing Quality Control and Specification Criteria for Gesoynthetic Clay Liners," Testing and Acceptance Criteria for Geosynthetic Clay Liners, ASTM STP 1308, L.W. Well (Ed.), American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 240-250.

Well, L.W. (1997), "Building a Better Barrier," Standardization News, Vol. 25, No. 7, July 1997, pp. 19-23.

Boardman, B.T., and D.E. Daniel (1996), "Hydraulic Conductivity of Desiccated Geosynthetic Clay Liners," Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 122, No. 3, pp. 204-209.

Calare, A., Piergiorgio, R., and P. Rimoldi (1996), "Italian Landfill Capping Techniques," Geotechnical Fabrics Report, Vol. 14, No. 6, pp. 42-47.

Daniel, D.E. (1996), "Geosynthetic Clay Liners, Part Two: Hydraulic Properties," Geotechnical Fabrics Report, Vol. 14, No. 5, pp. 22-26.

Fox, P.J., De Battista, D.J., and S.-H. Chen (1996), "Bearing Capacity of Geosynthetic Clay Liners for Cover Soils of Varying Particle Size," Geosynthetics International, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 447-461.

Gilbert, R.B., Fernandez, F., and D.W. Horsfield (1996), "Shear Strength of Reinforced Geosynthetic Clay Liner," Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 122, No. 4, pp. 259-266.

Koerner, G.R., Bowders, J.J., and H.B Scranton (1996), "Instrumentation for Monitoring Field Performance of the Cincinnati GCL Test Plots," Proceedings of the 10th GRI Conference, Field Performance of Geosynthetic Related Systems, Drexel University, December 10-11, 1996, Philadelphia, PA, USA, pp. 176-201.

Koerner, R.M. (1996), "Current Status of the Cincinnati GCL Test Plots," Proceedings of the 10th GRI Conference, Field Performance of Geosynthetic Related Systems, Drexel University, December 10-11, 1996, Philadelphia, PA, USA, pp. 147-175.

Koerner, R.M. (1996), "Geosynthetic Clay Liners, Part One: An Overview," Geotechnical Fabrics Report, Vol. 14, No. 4, pp. 22-25.

Koerner, R. M. (1996), "Perspectives on Geosynthetic Clay Liners," Testing and Acceptance Criteria for GCLs, L. W. Well and K. P. von Maubeuge, Eds., STP 1308, ASTM, West Conshohocken, PA, pp. 3-22.

Koerner, R.M., Koerner, G.R., and M.A. Eberle (1996), "Out-of-Plane Tensile Behavior of Geosynthetic Clay Liners," Geosynthetics International, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 277-296.

Narejo, D.B. (1996), "Effect of Moisture Content on Free Swell of the Clay Component of Geosynthetic Clay Liners," Testing and Acceptance Criteria for Geosynthetic Clay Liners, ASTM STP 1308, L.W. Well (Ed.), American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 23-29

.

Othman, M.A., Bonaparte, R., and B.A. Gross (1996), "Preliminary Results of Study of Composite Liner Field Performance," Proceedings of the 10th GRI Conference, Field Performance of Geosynthetic Related Systems, Geosynthetic Research Institute, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 110-137.

Scranton, H.B. (1996), "Field Performance of Sloping Test Plots Containing Geosynthetic Clay Liners," M.S. Thesis, University of Texas at Austin, 207 p.

Stulgis, R.P., Soydemir, C., Telgener, R.J., and R.D. Hewitt (1996), "Use of Geosynthetics on ‘Piggyback Landfills:’ a Case Study," Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Elsevier Science Limited, London, Vol. 14, pp. 341-363.

Trauger, R.J. (1996), "Designing with Geosynthetic Clay Liners," Environmental Geotechnology with Geosynthetics, G.V Rao and P.K. Banerjee, (Eds.), Asian Society for Environmental Geotechnology, New Delhi, pp. 233-246.

von Maubeuge, K.P. (1996), "Geosynthetic Clay Liners, Part Three: Manufacturing Quality Control and Specification Criteria, Geotechnical Fabrics Report, Vol. 14, No. 6, pp. 36-40.

von Maubeuge, K.P., and D. Stewart (1996), "GCL Solves a Problem on Lake Superior Shore," Geotechnical Fabrics Report, Vol. 14, No. 3, pp. 34-38.

Alexiew, D., Berkhout, H., and R. Kirschner (1995), "On the Slope Stability of Landfill Capping Seals Using GCLs," Geosynthetic Clay Liners, Proceedings on an International Symposium, Koerner, R.M., Gartung, E., and H. Zanzinger (Eds.), A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Netherlands, pp. 151-160.

Cooley, B.H., and D.E. Daniel (1995), "Seam Performance of Overlapped Geosynthetic Clay Liners," Geosynthetics ‘95 Conference Proceedings, Industrial Fabrics Association International, St. Paul, Minnesota, pp. 691-705.

Daniel, D.E. (1995), "Soil Barrier Layers Versus Geosynthetic Barriers in Landfill Cover Systems," Landfill Closures: Environmental Protection and Land Recovery, R.J. Dunn and U.P. Singh (Eds.), American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, pp. 1-19.

Daniel, D.E., and G.N. Richardson (1995), "The Role of Geomembranes and Geosynthetic Clay Liners in Landfill Covers," Geotechnical Fabrics Report, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 44-49.

Dobrowolski, J.G., and A.S. Dellinger (1995), "Innovative Cover Design for 2:1 Slopes Complying with California Closure Criteria," Landfill Closures: Environmental Protection and Land Recovery, ASCE Specialty Geotechnical Publication No. 53, Dunn, R.J., and U.P. Singh (Eds.), American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, pp. 35-50.

Egloffstein, T. (1995), "Properties and Test Methods to Assess Bentonite Used in Geosynthetic Clay Liners," Geosynthetic Clay Liners, Proceedings on an International Symposium, Koerner, R.M., Gartung E., and H. Zanzinger (Eds.), A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Netherlands, pp. 51-72.

Fuller, J.M. (1995), "Landfill Cap Designs Using Geosynthetic Clay Liners," Geosynthetic Clay Liners, Proceedings on an International Symposium, Koerner, R.M., Gartung E., and H. Zanzinger (Eds.), A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Netherlands, pp. 129-140.

Heerten, G. (1995), "Groundwater Protection Using a GCL at the Franz-Josef-Strauss Airport, Munich, Germany," Geosynthetic Clay Liners, Proceedings on an International Symposium, Koerner, R.M., Gartung, E., and H. Zanzinger (Eds.), A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Netherlands, pp. 161-174.

Heerten, G., Saathoff, F., Scheu, C, and K.P. von Maubeuge (1995), "On the Long-Term Shear Behavior of Geosynthetic Clay Liners (GCLs) in Capping Sealing Systems," Geosynthetic Clay Liners, Proceedings on an International Symposium, Koerner, R.M., Gartung, E., and H. Zanzinger (Eds.), A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 141-150.

Heerten, G., Saathoff, F., Scheu, C, and K.P. von Maubeuge (1995), "Testing, Interpreting, and Designing the Long-Term Shear Strength of Geosynthetic Clay Liners," Geosynthetics ‘95 Conference Proceedings, Industrial Fabrics Association International, St. Paul, Minnesota, pp. 867-877.

Heyer, D. (1995), "Basic Examination on the Efficiency of GCLs," Geosynthetic Clay Liners, Proceedings on an International Symposium, Koerner, R.M., Gartung, E., and H. Zanzinger (Eds.), A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Netherlands, pp. 101-111.

Koerner, R.M., and D. Narejo (1995), "On the Bearing Capacity of Hydrated Geosynthetic Clay Liners," Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 121, No. 1, pp. 82-85.

Koerner, G. R., Eberlé, M. and Koerner, R. M. (1995), "Potential Benefits of GCL's as Canal Liners," Geotechnical Fabrics Report, Vol. 13, No. 1, IFAI, January, pp. 36-39.

Koerner, R. M., Eberle, M. A. and Koerner, R. M. (1995), "Out-of-Plane Tensile Strength of GCLs," Jour. of Geotex. and Geomemb., Vol. xx, No. xx, Elsevier, pp.

Kreit, V. (1995), "Test Field for the Capping System of the Michelshohe Landfill," Geosynthetic Clay Liners, Proceedings on an International Symposium, Koerner, R.M., Gartung, E., and H. Zanzinger (Eds.), A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Netherlands, pp. 183-188.

Madsen, F., and R. Nuesch (1995), "Characteristics and Sealing Effect of Bentonite," Geosynthetic Clay Liners, Proceedings on an International Symposium, Koerner, R.M., Gartung, E., and H. Zanzinger (Eds.) A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Netherlands, pp. 31-50.

Pape, J.T., and R.B. Erickson (1995), "Capping Landfill Surfaces and Contaminated Areas with Geomembrane Supported Clay Liners," Geosynthetic Clay Liners, Proceedings on an International Symposium, Koerner, R.M., Gartung, E., and H. Zanzinger (Eds.), A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Netherlands, pp. 189-198.

Peggs, I.D., and B. Trauger (1995), "Quality-Testing Program for Geosynthetic Clay Liners," MSW Management, Vol. 5 , No. 6, pp. 42-47.

Powell, L. (1995), "New Method for Landfill Closure," Public Works, December 1995, pp 39-40.

Rathmayer, H. (1995), "Guidelines on the Use of Geosynthetic Clay Liners in Highway Construction," Geosynthetic Clay Liners, Proceedings on an International Symposium, Koerner, R.M., Gartung, E., and H. Zanzinger (Eds.), A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Netherlands, pp. 113-128.

Rau, M., and J. Dressler (1995), "Measurement and Control System for the Upper Basin of the Reisach-Rabenleite Pumped Storage Power Station," Geosynthetic Clay Liners, Proceedings on an International Symposium, Koerner, R.M., Gartung E., and H. Zanzinger (Eds.), A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Netherlands, pp. 207-218.


Schmidt, R. (1995), GCL Installation in a Water Protection Area for the A-96 Motorway Near Leutkirch, Germany," Geosynthetic Clay Liners, Proceedings on an International Symposium, R.M. Koerner, E. Gartung, H. Zanzinger (Eds.), A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Netherlands, pp. 199-206.

Taylor, L.R., Pan, T.M., Dellinger, A.S., and B.C. Yen (1995), "Seismic Stability Analysis for Geosynthetic Clay Liner Landfill Cover Placement on Steep Slopes," Earthquake Design and Performance of Solid Waste, ASCE Geotechnical Special Publication No. 54, American Society of Civil Engineers, Yegian, M.K. and W.D. Finn (Eds.), New York, pp. 196-211.

Trauger, R.J., and H.L. Lucas (1995), "Determining the Flow Rate of Landfill Gas Constituents Through a Geosynthetic Clay Liner," Geosynthetics '95 Conference Proceedings, Industrial Fabrics Association International, pp. 1085-1096.

Trauger, R.J., and K. Tewes (1995), "Design and Installation of a State-of-the-Art Landfill Liner System," Geosynthetic Clay Liners, Proceedings on an International Symposium, Koerner, R.M., Gartung, E., and H. Zanzinger (Eds.), A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Netherlands, pp. 175-181.

Weiss, W., Siegmund, M., and D. Alexiew (1995), "Field Performance of a Geosynthetic Clay Liner Landfill Capping System Under Simulated Waste Subsidence," Geosynthetics ‘95 Conference Proceedings, Industrial Fabrics Association International, St. Paul, Minnesota, pp. 641-654.

Wilson-Fahmy, R.F. and R.M. Koerner (1995), "Leakage Rates Through Holes in Geomembranes Overlying Geosynthetic Clay Liners," Geosynthetics, Conference Proceedings, Industrial Fabrics Association International, St. Paul, Minnesota, pp. 655-668.

Woodward, B.L., and Well, L.W. (1995), "Alternative Cover for Saturated Low-Strength Waste," Geosynthetics ‘95 Conference Proceedings, Industrial Fabrics Association International, St. Paul, Minnesota, pp. 551-562.

Zanzinger, H. (1995), "Quality Assurance in the Manufacture and Installation of GCLs," Geosynthetic Clay Liners, Proceedings on an International Symposium, Koerner, R.M., Gartung, E., and H. Zanzinger (Eds.), A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Netherlands, pp. 219-228.

Amble, T. (1994), "In-Plane Hydraulic Conductivity and Rate of Wetting of Geosynthetic Clay Liners," M.S. Thesis, University of Texas at Austin, 132 p.

Cooley, B.H. (1994), "Seam Performance of Overlapped Geosynthetic Clay Liners," M.S. Thesis, University of Texas at Austin, 209 p.

Daniel, D.E. (1994), "Why Aren’t Regulators More Receptive to Geosynthetic Clay Liners?" Geotechnical Fabrics Report, Vol. 12, No. 4, pp. 44-46.

Erickson, A.E., Chamberlain, E.J., and C.H. Benson (1994), "Effects of Frost Action on Covers and Liners Constructed in Cold Environments," Proceedings of the Seventeenth International Madison Waste Conference, University of Wisconsin at Madison, pp. 198-220.

Erickson, R.B., and J.D. Anderson (1994), "The Manufacturing and Application of a Geomembrane Supported Geosynthetic Clay Liner," Proceedings of the 8th Annual GRI Seminar, Geosynthetic Resins, Formulations, and Manufacturing, Geosynthetic Research Institute, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, (supplemental paper).

Fuller, J.M. (1994), Reinforcing Geosynthetic Clay Liners Using the Stitch-Bonding Process," Proceedings of the 8th GRI Seminar, Geosynthetic Resins, Formulations, and Manufacturing, Geosynthetic Research Institute, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 208-215.

Harpur, W.A., Wilson-Fahmy, R.F., and R.M. Koerner (1994), "Evaluation of the Contact Between Geosynthetic Clay Liners and Geomembranes in Terms of Transmissivity," Proceedings of the 7th GRI Seminar, Geosynthetic Liner Systems: Innovations, Concerns, and Designs, Geosynthetic Research Institute, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 138-149.

Hewitt, R.D. (1994), "Hydraulic Conductivity of Geosynthetic Clay Liners Subjected to Freeze/Thaw," M.S. Thesis, University of Texas at Austin, 103 p.

Jahangir, M.A. (1994), Containment of Petroleum Hydrocarbons by Geosynthetic Clay Liners Using Natural Soil Moisture," M.S. Thesis, University of Texas at Austin, 200 p.

Kavazanjian, E. (1994), "Performance of a Geosynthetic Liner System in the Northridge Earthquake," Geotechnical Fabrics Report, Vol. 12, No. 3, March 1994, pp. 18-24.

Koerner, R.M. (1994), Designing with Geosynthetics (3rd Ed.), Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 783 p. (Chapter 6, "Geosynthetic Clay Liners").

Koerner, R. and D.E. Daniel (1994), "A Suggested Methodology for Assessing the Technical Equivalency of GCLs to CCLs," Geosynthetic Clay Liners, Proceedings on an International Symposium, Koerner, R.M., Gartung, E., and H. Zanzinger (Eds.), A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Netherlands, pp. 73-98.

Koerner, R. and D.E. Daniel (1994), "Assessing the Technical Equivalency of GCLs to CCLs," Proceedings of the 7th GRI Seminar, Geosynthetic Liner Systems, Innovations, Concerns, and Designs, Geosynthetic Research Institute, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 255-275.

Koerner, R. M. and Daniel, D. E. (1994), "Technical Equivalency Assessment of GCLs to CCLs," Proc. GRI-7 Conference on Geosynthetic Liner Systems, IFAI, St. Paul, MN, pp. 255-275 and Proc. LGA/GRI Symposium on Geosynthetic Clay Liners, Nuremberg, Germany, pp. 59-84.

Koerner, R. M. and Narejo, D. (1994), "On the Bearing Capacity of Hydrated GCLs," ASCE, Journal of Geotechnical Engineering Division, Vol. xx, No. xx, pp.

Ruhl, J.L. (1994), "Effects of Leachates on the Hydraulic Conductivity of Geosynthetic Clay Liners," M.S. Thesis, University of Texas at Austin, 226 p

Trauger, R.J. (1994), "Specifying GCLs: A Formidable Challenge in an Emerging Industry," Geotechnical Fabrics Report, Vol. 12, No. 6, pp. 28-30.

Trauger, R.J. (1994), "The Structure, Properties, and Analysis of Bentonite in Geosynthetic Clay Liners," Proceedings of the 8th GRI Conference: Geosynthetic Resins, Formulations, and Manufacturing, Geosynthetic Research Institute, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 185-198.

Trauger, R.J. and J. Burgio, (1994), "Geosynthetics Solve Wetlands Mitigation Problems," Geotechnical Fabrics Report, Vol. 12, No. 6, pp. 16-21.

von Maubeuge, K.P., and G. Heerten (1994), "Needle-Punched Geosynthetic Clay Liners (GCLs)," Proceedings of the 8th GRI Conference: Geosynthetic Resins, Formulations, and Manufacturing, Geosynthetic Research Institute, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 199-207.

Boardman, B.T. (1993), "The Potential Use of Geosynthetic Clay Liners as Final Covers in Arid Regions," M.S. Thesis, University of Texas at Austin, 109 p.

Daniel, D.E. (1993), Geotechnical Practice for Waste Disposal, Chapman and Hall, London, 683 pp. (Chapter 7, "Soil Liners," and Chapter 18, "Cover Systems," include discussions on GCLs).

Daniel, D.E., and Koerner, R.M. (1993), Quality Assurance and Quality Control for Waste Containment Facilities," EPA/600/R-93/182, US EPA Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, 305 p., (Chapter 4, "Geosynthetic Clay Liners").

Daniel, D.E., Shan, H.Y., and J.D. Anderson (1993), "Effects of Partial Wetting on the Performance of the Bentonite Component of a Geosynthetic Clay Liner," Geosynthetics ‘93 Conference Proceedings, Vol. 3, Industrial Fabrics Association International, St. Paul, Minnesota, pp. 1483-1496.

Gleason, M.H. (1993), "Comparative Testing of Calcium and Sodium Smectite Clays for Geotechnical and Environmental Applications, M.S. Thesis, University of Texas at Austin.

Shan, H.Y. (1993), "Stability of Final Covers Placed on Slopes Containing Geosynthetic Clay Liners," Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Texas at Austin, 296 p.

Trauger, R.J., and T.G. Stam (1993), "Comparison of Geosynthetic Clay Liners and Compacted Clay Liners in Landfill Cover Systems," Sardinia '93, Fourth International Landfill Symposium Proceedings, pp. 469-480.

Clem, J. (1992), "GCLs Used Successfully in Hazardous Waste Containment," Geotechnical Fabrics Report, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 4-7.

Estornell, P., and D.E. Daniel (1992), "Hydraulic Conductivity of Three Geosynthetic Clay Liners," Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 118, No. 10, pp. 1592-1606.

Heerten, G. (1992), "Geotextile and/or GCL Protection Systems for Geomembranes," Proceedings of the 7th GRI Seminar, Geosynthetic Liner Systems: Innovations, Concerns, and Designs, Geosynthetic Research Institute, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 150-162.

Heerten, G., von Maubeuge, K.P., Simpson, M., and C. Mills (1992), "Manufacturing Quality Control of Geosynthetic Clay Liners - A Manufacturer’s Perspective," Proceedings of the 6th GRI Seminar, MQC/MQA and CQC/CQA of Geosynthetics, Geosynthetic Research Institute, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 86-95.

Koerner, R.M., and D.E. Daniel (1992), "Better Cover Ups," Civil Engineering, Vol. 62, No. 5, pp. 55-57.

LaGatta, M.D. (1992), "Hydraulic Conductivity Tests on Geosynthetic Clay Liners Subjected to Differential Settlement," M.S. Thesis, University of Texas at Austin, 120 p.

Leisher, P.J. (1992), "Hydration and Shear Strength Behavior of Geosynthetic Clay Liners," M.S. Thesis, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, USA, 129 p.

Lo, M.C. (1992), "Development and Evaluation of Clay Liner Materials for Hazardous Waste Sites," Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Texas at Austin, 288 p.

Bruton, D. (1991), "Bentonite Mats Meet Secondary Containment Standards," Geotechnical Fabrics Report, Vol. 9, No. 4, pp. 26-27.

Eith, A. W., Boschuk, J. and Koerner, R. M. (1991), "Prefabricated Bentonite Clay Liners," Jour. Geotex. and Geomemb., Vol. 10, No. 5-6, pp. 569-74.

Estornell, P. (1991), "Bench-Scale Hydraulic Conductivity Tests of Bentonitic Blanket Materials for Liner and Cover Systems," M.S. Thesis, University of Texas at Austin, 152 p.

Shan, H.Y., and D.E. Daniel (1991), "Results of Laboratory Tests on a Geotextile/Bentonite Liner Material," Geosynthetics ‘91 Proceedings, Industrial Fabrics Association International, St. Paul, Minnesota, Vol. 2., pp. 517-535.

Simpson, M.J. (1991), "A Prefabricated Bentonite Clay Liner," Landfill Closures: Geosynthetics, Interface Friction, and New Developments, R.M. Koerner (Ed.), Elsevier Applied Science, London, pp. 187-192.

Struve, F. (1991), "Geomembrane-Clay Composite Liners," Landfill Closures: Geosynthetics, Interface Friction, and New Developments, R.M. Koerner (Ed.), Elsevier Applied Science, London, pp. 177-186.

Trauger, R.J. (1991), "Geosynthetic Clay Liner Installed in a New Municipal Solid Waste Landfill," Geotechnical Fabrics Report, Vol. 9, No. 8, pp. 6-17.

Scheu, C.K., Johannssen, K., and F. Saathoff (1990), "Non-Woven Bentonite Fabrics--A New Fibre Reinforced Mineral Liner System," Geotextiles, Geomembranes, and Related Products, D. Hoet (Ed.), A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Netherlands, Vol. 2, pp. 467-482.

Shan H.Y. (1990), "Laboratory Tests on a Bentonitic Blanket," M.S. Thesis, University of Texas at Austin, 84 p.

Schubert, W.R. (1987), "Bentonite Matting in Composite Lining System," Geotechnical Practice for Waste Disposal ‘87, R.D. Woods (Ed.), American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, pp. 784-796.

back to top